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establish relations lations establish them. If they had dip- break off relations lomatic relations previously but broke restore relations them off, they restore them, normalis- normalise ing relations between them.


Bad relations are often described as strained, tense or frosty. Relations are sour relations said to be soured by something that

negatively affects them.

strained relations When bad relations between countries tense relations improve, commentators talk about a

frosty relations thaw between the countries.

A country having diplomatic relations diplomatically with very few other countries is diplo-

isolated matically isolated.

§ 7. Supplementary Reader

sanctions When one country wants to put pres-

trade sanctions sure on another, it may limit trade with

embargo that country and impose sanctions, or it

economic may stop trade and other contacts and

embargo impose an economic embargo.

LANGUAGE NOTE Thaw is a noun and a verb.

Denmark and Iceland have become the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with the three Baltic republics.

After Indonesia's invasion of East Timor, Portugal broke off diplomatic relations with Indonesia.

Britain's trade with Iran cannot be wholly unrelated to the two countries' history of strained relations. Though, diplo­matic relations were restored last year, ambassadors have not been exchanged yet.

The trip is being seen as an important step in normalising relations between the two countries. Our correspondent says that the visit undoubtedly marks a thaw in Harare's previ­ously frosty attitude to South Africa.

Japan — fearful of putting further strain on its already tense relations with the United States — has continued to support the economic embargo against Vietnam, albeit un­willingly.

By extending central rule, the government risks souring relations with the Sikhs.

Some Europeans think that, if Serbia were morally and diplomatically isolated, it would think twice about fighting on.

The United States is considering imposing trade sanctions against Thailand, unless Thailand lifts a ban on foreign ciga­rette imports and advertising.

80__________ Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

Diplomatic relations.Which of the verbs below mean the same as 1) "break off and 2) "restore" in the context of diplo­matic relations? Use appropriate forms of the verbs to complete the extracts below.

a) resume c) re-open e) break

b) renew d) cut off f) re-establish

1. Senegal and Mauritania have agreed in principle to___

diplomatic relations, broken off two years ago after bloody clashes along the Senegal river which forms their common frontier.

2. The Moscow talks were the first between senior diplomats of the two countries since the Soviet Union _ diplo­matic relations with Israel in 1967.

3. Mexico and the Vatican_______ diplomatic relations in

1867, when the reformist President Juarez confiscated all church properties and suppressed the religious orders.

4. The visit is caking place just over three months after Argen­ tina and Britain agreed to_____ diplomatic relations eight

years after the two countries broke all links during the Falk-lands War.

5. In recent years, Albania has —_______________ dip­lomatic relations with most European countries.

6. Table tennis teams were visiting China before Nixon —

________ diplomatic relations between Communist China

and the United States.


escalating tension If the differences between two sides

increase, there is escalating tension be-

war tween them. A standoff is a period of

avert a war extreme tension that may or may not

§ 7. Supplementary Reader

teeter on the lead to violence. If two sides are very

brink of war close to war, they are (teetering) on the

brink of war.

standoff If a war is prevented, perhaps by talks,

it is averted. If not, hostilities begin or break out. hostilities hostilities begin A hot spot is a place where tension is

hostilities break high and fighting may break out at any

out moment.

The American ambassador in Delhi has confirmed that his country is urging India and Pakistan to hold talks to try to avert the threat of war over Kashmir.

North Korea often accuses the South of escalating tension to the brink of war by staging joint military manoeuvres known as "Team Spirit" with the United States.

In 1961, just after the building of the Berlin Wall, this was the scene of a tense standoff between Soviet and American tanks: the world teetered on the brink of war.

Mr Urqhart emphasised the need for a preventive UN force to be dispatched to hot spots before hostilities break out.

"The only acceptable outcome, if, in fact, hostilities begin, is absolute, total victory."

Types of war.Find the following types of war in the table. Then use the expressions to complete the extracts.

A war...

1. that isolated clashes might degenerate into

2. between East and West that lasted from 1945 to 1989

3. where nuclear arms are used

4. where nuclear arms are not used

82__________ Английский язык. Общественно-поДкгический перевод

5. between factions of the same nationality

6. causing an enormous number of deaths and amount of damage

7. fought by irregular forces, perhaps avoiding direct con­frontation with the other side.

civil guerrilla Cold full-scale war conventional nuclear devastating

a The Cold War is over. The world is learning to live with­ out the imminent threat of_______ war that had con­ ditioned our lives for 40 years.

b A grim reminder of the________ War — the border

crossing point between East and West Berlin known as Checkpoint Charlie — is to go the way of the rest of the Berlin Wall and be dismantled.

с As the________ war in Liberia enters its tenth month,

thousands of people continue to stream across the borders into neighbouring countries.

d Because of the intensity of the fighting — what analysts call "low-intensity ______ war"— neither side ap­ pears strong enough to defeat the other.

e The President himself said he is against withdrawing all Nato nuclear weapons from Europe and thus making it safe for_______ war.

f The question is whether anything else but a neutral out­ side force would be strong enough to persuade them to leave the scene before the current clashes degenerate into ________ war.

g The two men stressed the importance of averting the ca­ tastrophe of a________ war and the need to achieve a

common Arab stand.

§ ?. Supplementary Reader

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